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Error

This Go program demonstrates how to use errors in Go and introduces a custom error type. It defines two functions, f1 and f2, both of which return an int and an error.
The f2 function introduces a custom error type argError. The main function then calls these functions and handles the errors.
package main
import (
"errors"
"fmt"
)
// Function f1 returns the result of arg + 3, or an error if arg is 42
func f1(arg int) (int, error) {
if arg == 42 {
return -1, errors.New("can't work with 42")
}
return arg + 3, nil
}
// Define a custom error type argError, which includes information about the argument and the problem
type argError struct {
arg int
prob string
}
// Implement the Error method for the argError type
func (e *argError) Error() string {
return fmt.Sprintf("%d - %s", e.arg, e.prob)
}
// Function f2 returns the result of arg + 3, or a custom argError if arg is 42
func f2(arg int) (int, error) {
if arg == 42 {
return -1, &argError{arg, "can't work with it"}
}
return arg + 3, nil
}
func main() {
// Use f1 and handle the error
for _, i := range []int{7, 42} {
if r, e := f1(i); e != nil {
fmt.Println("f1 failed:", e)
} else {
fmt.Println("f1 worked:", r)
}
}
// Use f2 and handle the custom error type
for _, i := range []int{7, 42} {
if r, e := f2(i); e != nil {
fmt.Println("f2 failed:", e)
} else {
fmt.Println("f2 worked:", r)
}
}
// Demonstrate type assertion to access fields of the custom error type
_, e := f2(42)
if ae, ok := e.(*argError); ok {
fmt.Println("Custom error type:")
fmt.Println(ae.arg)
fmt.Println(ae.prob)
}
}

Output

f1 worked: 10
f1 failed: can't work with 42
f2 worked: 10
f2 failed: 42 - can't work with it
42
can't work with it
Explanation:
  1. 1.
    The f1 function returns either the result of arg + 3 or an error if arg is equal to 42. It uses the standard errors.New function to create a simple error.
  2. 2.
    The argError type is a custom error type with fields arg and prob. It has an Error method to implement the error interface.
  3. 3.
    The f2 function returns either the result of arg + 3 or a custom argError if arg is equal to 42.
  4. 4.
    The main function demonstrates the usage of these functions:
    • Calls to f1 and f2 are made in loops, and errors are handled using conditional statements.
    • For the custom error type argError, type assertion is used to access its fields.
This example illustrates how to work with errors in Go, including creating custom error types and handling errors returned by functions.
Last modified 1mo ago