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This Go code illustrates the use of defer statements to ensure that certain actions, like closing a file, are performed even if an error occurs. Let's go through the code with inline comments and explanations:
// Importing necessary packages.
import (
// The main function, where the execution of the program begins.
func main() {
// Creating a file and deferring the closing of the file until the surrounding function returns.
f := createFile("/tmp/defer.txt")
defer closeFile(f)
// Writing data to the file.
// createFile function creates a file and returns a pointer to the os.File.
func createFile(p string) *os.File {
// Attempting to create the file.
f, err := os.Create(p)
if err != nil {
// If an error occurs during file creation, the program panics.
return f
// writeFile function writes data to the provided os.File.
func writeFile(f *os.File) {
// Writing the data to the file.
fmt.Fprintln(f, "data")
// closeFile function closes the provided os.File, handling errors.
func closeFile(f *os.File) {
// Closing the file and checking for errors.
err := f.Close()
// Handling errors if the file cannot be closed successfully.
if err != nil {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "error: %v\n", err)


panic: open /tmp/defer.txt: The system cannot find the path specified.
goroutine 1 [running]:
main.createFile({0x622f83, 0xe})
..:/...../..../..../defer.go:19 +0x93
..:/...../..../..../defer.go:10 +0x2b
exit status 2
  1. 1.
    createFile(p string) *os.File:
    • This function creates a file at the specified path p.
    • If an error occurs during file creation, the function panics with the error message.
    • The created file is returned as a pointer to os.File.
  2. 2.
    writeFile(f *os.File):
    • This function writes the string "data" to the provided file (os.File).
  3. 3.
    closeFile(f *os.File):
    • This function closes the provided file (os.File).
    • If an error occurs during file closing, it prints an error message to os.Stderr and exits the program.
  4. 4.
    defer closeFile(f):
    • The defer statement ensures that the closeFile function is called when the surrounding function (main in this case) returns, regardless of whether it returns normally or panics.
    • In this example, it ensures that the file is closed even if an error occurs during the execution of main.
Using defer is a convenient way to ensure that cleanup actions are performed, especially when dealing with resources like files, to avoid resource leaks.
Last modified 1mo ago