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Text Templates

This Go code demonstrates the use of the text/template package to define and execute templates. Let's go through the code with inline comments and explanations:
// Importing necessary packages.
import (
"os"
"text/template"
)
​
// The main function, where the execution of the program begins.
func main() {
// Creating a new template named "t1" and parsing a simple template string.
t1 := template.New("t1")
t1, err := t1.Parse("Value is {{.}}\n")
if err != nil {
panic(err)
}
​
// Using template.Must to simplify error handling and parsing another template string.
t1 = template.Must(t1.Parse("Value: {{.}}\n"))
​
// Executing the template with different values and printing the result to os.Stdout.
t1.Execute(os.Stdout, "some text")
t1.Execute(os.Stdout, 5)
t1.Execute(os.Stdout, []string{
"Go",
"Rust",
"C++",
"C#",
})
​
// Creating a function to simplify template creation.
Create := func(name, t string) *template.Template {
return template.Must(template.New(name).Parse(t))
}
​
// Creating a new template "t2" using the Create function and executing it with a struct and a map.
t2 := Create("t2", "Name: {{.Name}}\n")
t2.Execute(os.Stdout, struct {
Name string
}{"Jane Doe"})
​
t2.Execute(os.Stdout, map[string]string{
"Name": "Mickey Mouse",
})
​
// Creating a new template "t3" using the Create function with a conditional statement and executing it.
t3 := Create("t3", "{{if . -}} yes {{else -}} no {{end}}\n")
t3.Execute(os.Stdout, "not empty")
t3.Execute(os.Stdout, "")
​
// Creating a new template "t4" using the Create function with a range statement and executing it.
t4 := Create("t4", "Range: {{range .}}{{.}} {{end}}\n")
t4.Execute(os.Stdout,
[]string{
"Go",
"Rust",
"C++",
"C#",
})
}

Output

Value: some text
Value: 5
Value: [Go Rust C++ C#]
Name: Jane Doe
Name: Mickey Mouse
yes
no
Range: Go Rust C++ C#
Explanation:
  1. 1.
    Creating and Parsing Templates:
    • t1 is created with template.New("t1") and parsed with t1.Parse("Value is {{.}}\n").
    • template.Must is used to simplify error handling and parse another template string.
  2. 2.
    Executing Templates:
    • The Execute function is used to execute templates with different values, printing the results to os.Stdout.
  3. 3.
    Template Creation Function:
    • The Create function is defined to simplify template creation using template.Must.
  4. 4.
    Using Struct and Map:
    • t2 is created using the Create function, and it is executed with both a struct and a map as input.
  5. 5.
    Conditional Statement in Template:
    • t3 is created using the Create function with a conditional statement ({{if . -}} yes {{else -}} no {{end}}).
  6. 6.
    Range Statement in Template:
    • t4 is created using the Create function with a range statement ({{range .}}{{.}} {{end}}), and it is executed with a slice of strings.
These examples showcase the flexibility of the text/template package for defining and executing templates with various data structures and control structures.